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最新专升本英语语法教案---真题版资料

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英语语法

语法的三大基础:

十大词性:
1. 名词 noun(n.) 2. 代词 pronoun(pron.) 3. 数词 numeral(num.) 4. 动词 verb(v.) 5. 形容词 adjective(adj.) 6. 副词 adverb(adv.) 7. 冠词 article(art.) 8. 介词 preposition(prep.) 9. 连词 conjunction(conj.) 10. 感叹词 interjection(interj.)

表名称

例:teacher, book

代替名词

例:we, he

表数目

例:two, second

表动作

例:be, know, work

作定语,译为“…的” 例:beautiful, good

作状语,译为“…的” 例:slowly, beautifully

三个冠词

例:a, an, the

表词与词的关系

例:in, on, from, against

连接词与词,句与句 例:and, or, but, if

表感情

例:oh, ah

☆ 副词:用来修饰动词、形容词、全句的词。说明时间、地点、程度、方式等。 如:now, often, already, here, there, carefully, much, very…
☆介词和连词的区别:介词后跟“名词”,不能直接跟句子。连词后可以直接跟 句子。

七大句子成分: 主 谓 宾 表 定 状 补 (同位语,插入语) ①主语:句首的“谁”或“什么”,动作发出者。
e.g. I like you. ②谓语动词:主语的动作。
e.g. I like you. ③宾语:动作承受者。
e.g. I like you. ④表语:表主语的性质或状态,be 动词为标志。
e.g. I am a student. She is beautiful. ⑤定语:用来限定名词,adj.为标志。
e.g. She is a beautiful girl. ⑥状语:用来修饰词或句子,有时间状语、地点状语、方式状语等。
e.g. I eat bread in the morning. I study English at school. ⑦补语:用来补充说明。分为主语补足语和宾语补足语。
e.g. We elected(选举) him monitor(班长). ⑧同位语:解释名词的内容。
e.g. Tom, an English teacher, loves his job. ⑨插入语:附加解释。
e.g. As a result(, 结果) To be frank(坦白地说), Fortunately(, 幸运的是)
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五大基本句型:

一、主

+



+宾







动作发出者

谓语动词 动作承受者

例: She likes English. (名词)

主谓宾

I love you. (代词)

主谓 宾

He enjoys reading. (动名词-ing)

主谓



They want to go.(不定式 to do)

主谓宾

I know that she has a boy friend.(句子)

主谓



二、主 + 谓(不及物动词)

例: The boy cried.





Jim runs in the park every morning.

主 谓 地点状语

时间状语

I play with him every day. 主 谓 介词 宾 时间状语 ☆及物动词(vt.)与不及物动词(vi.): 及物动词:直接跟宾语,如:I cook food…I eat food…I buy food… 不及物动词:不能直接跟宾语,如果跟,需加介词。如:I talk to him…I play

with him…I laugh at him…

三、主 + 系 + 表

系动词:以 be 动词为首的一系列动词。

1.be(am, is, are/was, were) 强调用法 可单独使用,翻译为“是”。

☆ 系动词 be 与助动词 be(am, is, are/was, were)的区别:

助动词 be 不可单独使用: 构成进行时:be + doing 表正在进行的动作

构成被动语态:be + done 表“被…”

例: He is a handsome boy.

主系



He is swimming. 主谓
He is told about the accident.(被动句) 2.感官系动词,译为:“…起来” look, sound, smell, taste, feel, appear(看起来) 考点:此时表语只能用 adj.充当。 例 1:Dinner smells good.
主系表

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His voice sounds strange.



系表

例 2:—Do you like the material(布料,材料)? —Yes, it ____very soft. (2012)

A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 3.表状态变化类的系动词:

a.“保持”stay (awake)

b.“变得”become (difficult)

remain (silent)

turn (cold)

keep (warm)

grow (old)

get (fat)

go (mad)

fall (asleep)

例: He went mad last night.

come (true)

四、主 + 谓 + 间宾 + 直宾





间接宾语(人) 直接宾语(物)

例: He gave me a book.

主 谓 间宾 直宾

主 + 谓 + 间宾 + 直宾 → 主 + 谓 + 直宾 + 介词 + 间宾

I passed my mother the box. → I passed the box to my mother.

加 to 的动词有:bring(带来), show(展示), sell(卖), send(寄), take(拿),

throw(仍), give(给), tell(告诉), offer(提供), pass(传递)…

I bought John a birthday present. → I bought a birthday present for John.

加 for 的动词有:book(预订),buy(买), find(为…找到), order(订购), cook

(做饭), choose(选择), leave(留下)…

五、主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补 ↓
宾语补足语 例:We elected(选举) him monitor.(班长)


He is monitor.

I will make you caption.(船长)

He saw the boy playing by the river.(现在分词 doing)

主谓 宾

宾补 地点状语

The manager asked Amada to leave.(不定式 to do)







宾补

注:句型四与句型五的区分:句型四,在间宾与直宾之间加系动词 be,语义不通顺。

句型五,在宾语与宾补之间加系动词 be,语义通顺。

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总结:两大基本句型: 主+系+表 主+谓+宾
变谓 v. → 主 + 谓 变宾语 → 主 + 谓 + 间宾 + 直宾 加宾补 → 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补 注:在英语中,一个简单句有且只有一个谓语动词。
名词
名词:专有名词,如人名、地名、机构名等,首字母必须大写。例:John Smith, the United States, Yale University, Children’s Day, the Greens(格林一家人) 名词的数(可数名词与不可数名词) 一、可数名词
单数可数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。 复数可数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数。 注:1.单数可数名词不可单独使用,需在前面加 a, an, the, my, his, one 等。 2.a 用在辅音发音开头的名词前,如 a desk, a computer, a university, a tear
an 用在元音发音开头的名词前,如 an orange, an office, an apple 单数变复数法则: 1. 一般直接加-s,如:books, caps(帽子),trees… 2. 以-s, -x, -ch, -sh 结尾的名词,在词尾加-es.如:glasses, boxes, watches,
brushes…(以-th 结尾的名词直接加-s,如:months) 3. 以辅音字母加-y 结尾,把-y 变-ies.如:stories, countries…
以元音字母加-y 结尾,在-y 后直接加-s.如:boys, toys, days… 4. 以-o 结尾的名词变复数:
有生命,加-es.如:Negroes, heroes, tomatoes, potatoes… 无生命,加-s. 如:radios, zoos, photos, pianos… 有生命口诀:黑人和英雄吃西红柿和土豆 5. 以-f 或-fe 结尾的名词变复数,直接加-s. 但是以下名词需要变-f 或-fe 为-ves,如:self---selves, life---lives(性命), thieves, wives, knives, loaf—loaves(一片), leaves, shelves, wolves, halves. 口诀:为了自己活命,小偷和妻子拿刀子和一片树叶站在架子上,把狼劈 成两半。 6. 复合名词(合成名词)变复数,变中心名词,如:girl students, boy friends, passers-by(过路人), sons-in-law(女婿) 注:man/woman +n. 变复数,两个词都变复数,如:men doctors, women teachers. 7. 不 规 则 变 化 的 名 词 : man---men, woman---women, child---children,
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tooth---teeth, foot---feet, mouse---mice, ox---oxen, goose---geese 口诀:男人和女人有小孩,小孩有牙齿和脚,小孩喜欢三种动物:老鼠、 公牛、鹅。 8. 单复同形的名词:Chinese, Japanese, Swiss, sheep, deer, series, means, aircraft, works(工厂), species, fish, fruit…如:a sheep, two sheep. 注 : American---Americans, German---Germans, Australian---Australians,
Frenchman---Frenchmen, Englishman---Englishmen. 9. 只有复数的名词:
a. people, police, cattle(牛群)作主语时,谓语动词用复数。 例:The police are coming. b. 成双成对的名词,如:shoes, socks, stockings(长筒袜), trousers, gloves,
glasses, chopsticks, scissors(剪刀), 这些词作主语,谓语动词用复数。 注:但与 pair(双), suit(套装), kind, sort(种类)等量词连用且作主语时,谓 语动词的单复与量词保持一致。 例:Glasses are expensive.
This pair of glasses is expensive.
These pairs of glasses are expensive. 10. 集体名词:
public, government, committee, crowd, class, audience, team, family, group. 民众政府委员会,人群班级听众队,再加家庭和小队。 作主语时:名词作为一个整体时,谓语动词用单数。
名词指各个成员时,谓语动词用复数。 例:His family is a big one.
His family get on well with each other.

二、不可数名词

1.无单复数变化,词前不能用 a/an,但可用 the 修饰。

2.作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

3.常见的不可数名词:bread, weather, water, advice, information, furniture, fun,

traffic, equipment(设备), luggage=baggage(行李)

4.既可数,又不可数的名词:

paper [C]报纸,论文

room [C]房间

experience [C]经历

[U]纸

[U]空间

[U]经验

work [C]作品 [U]工作

chicken [C]小鸡 [U]鸡肉

hair [C](几根)头发 [U]整头头发

time [C]次数 [U]时间

glass [C]玻璃杯 [U]玻璃

orange [C]橙子 [U]橙汁

名词所有格 有生命,用 ’s 如:the boy’s bag, the children’s rooms 无生命,用 of 如:the window of the room 注:1.以-s 结尾的复数名词加 ’ 如:the workers’ wage(工资), 不规则复数名词加’s

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如:the children’s toys

2.分别所属和共同所属的表达:A and B’s A 和 B 的(一个东西)

A’s and B’s A 的(一个东西)和 B 的(一个东西)

3.双重所有格:名词 + of +名词’s

例:a friend of Tom’s (friends)

名词 + of + 名词性物主代词 例:some students of mine

注:表时间、国家、城市等名词后,可加’s 如:five minutes’ walk=five-minute walk

例:My daughter and I took a_____ tour around New York City. (2009)

A. two day B. two day’s C. two-days D. two-day 名词所有格后跟地点名词时,往往省略地点。如:the doctor’s (office), the tailor’s (shop)(裁缝店),the barber’s (shop)(理发店) 4.修饰可数名词数量的词组:a few/few, many, a (large) number of 修饰不可数名词数量的词组:a little/little, much, a (large) amount of, a great

deal of

既修饰可数,又修饰不可数:some, a lot of=lots of, plenty of

5.名词作定语:the room

number

n.定语(单数) n.被限定词

当名词作定语时,该名词用单数形式。例:tooth brush, shoe shop, book store

动词的时态

一、一般现在时

1.定义:表示*惯性、经常性、规律性的动作或状态。

2.构成:主语 + 系动词 be(am, is, are) + 其他 主语 + 实义动词 + 其他
实义动词的变化规则:

当主语为 I/其他人称时,谓语动词用原形。 当主语为单数第三人称时,谓语动词变化规则如下:

⑴一般动词,加-s. 如:works, loves, likes… ⑵以-s, -x, -sh, -ch, -o 结尾的动词加-es. 如:kisses, fixes, washes, watches, goes… ⑶以辅音字母加-y 结尾的动词,变-y 为-ies. 如:studies, worries, carries…
以元音字母加-y 结尾的动词,直接加-s. 如:plays, enjoys… 3.常用的时间状语:

often, usually, always, seldom(很少), sometimes, every day/week/month/year, once

a day, on Mondays/Sundays/weekends

4.否定/疑问形式:

⑴当谓语动词为系动词 be 时:

否定形式:在 be 后加 not

主 + be(am, is, are) + not + …

疑问形式:be 动词提到主语前 Is/Are + 主 + …?

⑵当谓语动词为实义动词时,变否定/疑问借助助动词 do/does

a. 当主语为 I/其他人称时,借助 do

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否定形式:主 + do not (don’t) + 动原 + … 疑问形式:Do + 主 + 动原 + …? b. 当主语为单数第三人称时,借助 does 否定形式:主 + does not (doesn’t) + 动原 + … 疑问形式:Does + 主 + 动原 + …? ☆ 考点: ⑴表示不受时间限制的客观真理、客观事实、自然规律以及名言警句,用一般 现在时。 例:The earth moves around the sun. ⑵对列车、航班、时刻表的表述时,用一般现在时。 例:The train leaves at 8 o’clock.

二、一般过去时

1. 定义:表示过去发生的动作或状态。 2. 构成:主语 + be(was, were) + 其他
主语 + V-ed + 其他(适用于所有人称) 规则动词过去式的变化规则:

⑴一般动词,加-ed. 如:worked, finished, helped, followed… ⑵以-e 结尾的加-d. 如:hoped, liked, agreed, believed… ⑶以辅音字母加-y 结尾的动词,变-y 为-ied. 如:studied, worried… 以元音字母加-y 结尾的动词,直接加-ed. 如:played, enjoyed… ⑷以辅音+元音+辅音字母结尾的动词,双写最后的辅音字母,加-ed. 如:

stopped, admitted, begged…

3. 时间状语:

yesterday, the day before yesterday(前天), the other day(不久前的一天), just

now(刚才), this morning(今天早上), 一段时间 + ago, 如:a week ago, in + 过

去时间点, 如:in 1990

4.否定/疑问形式:

⑴当谓语动词为系动词 be 时:

否定形式:在 be 后加 not

主 + be(was, were) + not + …

疑问形式:be 动词提到主语前 Was/Were + 主 + …?

⑵当谓语动词为实义动词时,变否定/疑问借助助动词 did

否定形式:在动词前加 did not 主 + did not (didn’t) + 动原 + …

疑问形式:将 did 提到主语前 Did + 主 + 动原 + …?

☆考点:used to do

过去常常做某事

be used to doing *惯于做某事

例:I used ____ on the left in England, but I soon got used____ on the right in China.

A. to driving... to drive B. to drive… to driving

(2010)

C. to drive… to drive D. to driving… to driving

三、一般将来时 1. 定义:表示将来发生的动作或状态。 2. 构成:主 + will/shall + 动原 + 其他 “心甘情愿做…”
注:will 用于所有人称;shall 只用于 I/We

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主 + be(am, is, are) + going to + 动原 +其他 “打算做…” 主 + be(am, is, are) + to do “一定要做…” 注:be about to do=be on the point of doing “马上要做…” 3. 时间状语:

tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next day/week/month/year,

in + 将来时间点:in 2050

some day(将来有一天)

时间段: in a week

4.否定/疑问形式:

否定形式:在 will, shall 或 be 后加 not 主 + will/shall + not + 动原 + 其他

疑问形式:将 will, shall 或 be 提到主语前 Will/Shall + 主 + 动原 +其他?

☆考点:

⑴由 if(如果), as long as, unless, in case(万一), when, as soon as(一…就…), not…until(直到…才)引导的时间或条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,从句用一 般现在时。(主将从现)

注:引导词后面的句子为从句;“逗号”不能直接连接两个句子。

⑵固定句型:It will be + 时间段 + before + … “再过多久才…” ⑶There be 句型的将来时: There will be…
例:There will be a meeting in three days. (be)

四、过去将来时 1.定义:表示从过去某一时间看将要发生的动作。 2.构成:主 + would/should + 动原 + 其他
主 + was/were going to do… 主 + was/were to do… 3.时间状语:
the next day/week/month/year, the following day

五、进行时
1. 定义:表示某一时刻或阶段内正在进行的动作或状态。 2. 构成:现在进行时:be(am, is, are) doing
过去进行时:be(was, were) doing 将来进行时:will be doing 3. 时间状语: 现进:now, at present, this week, these days 过进:at that time, at this time yesterday 将进:at this time tomorrow, at nine tomorrow ☆ 考点:
⑴现在进行时与频度副词:often, always, all the time 等连用时,表达说话人批评 或赞扬的情绪,译为:“总是”“老是”。
例:She is always asking questions. ⑵Look! Listen! 多与现在进行时连用。 例:Listen! The bird is singing. ⑶现在进行时与表状态变化的系动词 become, get, turn, grow, go 连用表示渐变的 过程。

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例:The weather is becoming colder and colder. ⑷一些表“来”“去”的词常用现在进行时表将来,如:come, leave, arrive, go, begin,
start. 例: I’m leaving for Beijing next month. ⑸发生在过去同一段时间内的两个动作,长动作用进行时,短动作用一般态,由 when, as, while 引导。 例:When I was studying last night, my mother came into my room without knocking
the door. ⑹表示某一段时间都在进行的动作,可以是间断进行的动作。 例:We are making model planes these days.
He was writing a novel last night, but I don’t know whether he has finished it.

六、现在完成时

1.定义:⑴动作发生在过去并一直持续到现在。

⑵发生在过去的动作对现在产生了影响。

2.构成:主 + has/have + V-ed (单数第三人称用 has, 其他人称都用 have) 主动词 实义动词

3.时间状语:

already(已经), just(刚刚), yet(还) not…yet(还…没有), ever(曾经), never(从不), recently = lately(最*), so far = by now = up/till to now(直到现在,迄今为止), in/during the last/past + 时间段 “在过去…中” 如:in the past two years(在过去 两年里), during the last two weeks(在过去两个星期里), since + 过去时间点(since 1990, since then) for +时间段(多与现在完成时连用)
句子(一般过去时) 4.否定/疑问形式:

否定形式:主 + have/has + not + V-ed + … 疑问形式:Have/Has + 主 + V-ed + …? ☆考点:

⑴have/has been to

“去过…”(现在人已经回来了)

have/has gone to

“去了…”(现在人不在这儿)

例:I D to the Great Wall three times.

A. has gone B. have gone C. has been D. have been

⑵固定句型 1:It is the first/second/third time that + 句子(现在完成时) “这是第几

次做…”

例: This is the first time that I have seen this. (see)

⑶固定句型 2:This is + 最高级 + 名词 + that + 句子(现在完成时)

例:This is the best tea that I have drunk. (drink)

⑷for + 时间段/ since…不能与短暂动词连用构成现在完成时。

例:His grandmother has died for two years.

(ⅹ)

His grandmother has been dead for two years. (√)

短暂动词需要变为 be + 形容词/副词 表状态的延续,如:

die →be dead, begin/start →be on, come/join(参加)/arrive(到达) →be in,

leave →be away

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七、现在完成进行时 1.定义:表示动作发生在过去一直持续到现在,并极有可能继续持续下去。 2.构成:主 + have/has been doing ☆ 与现在完成时的区别:
现在完成时:表示该动作有可能继续,也有可能不继续。 现在完成进行时:表示该动作极有可能继续下去。 例 1:I have washed my clothes for two hours. (有可能继续洗,有可能不洗了)
I have been washing my clothes for two hours. (极有可能继续洗下去) 例 2:She_____ English since she was a child. (2003)
A. learning B. had learned C. is learning D. has been learning
八、过去完成时 1. 定义:在过去某个时间或动作之前已经结束的动作。过去完成时必须有过去
的时间参考点,表“过去的过去”。 2. 构成:主 + had V-ed + 其他 3. 时间状语:
by/until + 过去的时间点(到…为止) by the end of + 过去时间点(到…结束的时候) before + 过去时间点
句子(一般过去时) by the time…+ 句子(一般过去时) 4.否定/疑问形式: 否定形式:主 + had + not + V-ed + … 疑问形式:Had + 主 + V-ed + …? 例 1:⑴He said that he had been abroad for three years. (be)
⑵She had learned some English before she came to the school. (learn) ⑶By then, he had learned English for three years. (learn) 例 2:⑴John and I ___friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we ___each other a couple of times before that. (2008) A. had been, have been B. have been, have seen C. had been, had seen D. have been, had seen ⑵Until then, his family____ from him for six months. (2012) A. didn’t hear B. hasn’t been hearing C. hasn’t heard D. hadn’t heard
九、将来完成时 定义:在将来的时间或动作之前已经完成的动作。 1. 构成:主 + will/shall have V-ed 2. 时间状语:
by/until + 将来的时间点(到…为止) by the end of + 将来时间点(到…结束的时候) before + 将来时间点
句子(一般现在时) by the time…+ 句子(一般现在时) 例:We _____building the bridge by the end of next month. (2013)
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A. are finishing B. would finish C. have finished D. will have finished

动词的被动语态

一、被动语态的构成: be(助动词) + done(过去分词)

二、3ⅹ3 时态变化表:



现在

过去

将来



一般

do

did

will/shall do

进行

am, is, are doing was, were doing will/shall be doing

完成

have/has done

had done

will/shall have done

加 be done 变被动:



现在



一般

am, is, are done

进行 am, is, are being done

完成 have/has been done

过去

将来

was, were done

will/shall be done

was, were being done -----------

had been done

will/shall have been done

三、主动句变被动句的规律:

宾语提前主语变,人称时态 be 关键。 过去分词勿用错,主语变宾 by 后见。 被动条件:

谁做的动作不知道,

说出谁做的没必要,

突出承受者很重要,

被动语态错不了。

主动句:The boy broke the window yesterday. 被动句:The window was broken yesterday (by the boy). 注:被动句中 be 的单复要与新主语保持一致,但时态要与主动句的时态保持一 致。

四、考点

1.不及物动词无被动,一些词组无被动: take place = happen( 发 生 ) break out( 火 灾 , 战 争 爆 发 ) appear( 出 现 )
disappear(消失) break down(坏掉,抛锚) come true(实现) belong to(属于) consist of(由…组成) occur to(使想起) 例:He_____ by his sister at that moment. (2012)

A. happened to see

B. was happened to see

C. was happened to be seen D. happened to be seen 2.个别及物动词无被动:
fit(适合), wish, cost(花费) 例:This key just fits the lock. 3.系动词无被动语态,感官类系动词主动表被动。例: The silk feels sick. 4.情态动词本身无被动语态:

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构成:主 + 情动 + be + V-ed 例:New books can be downloaded from the Internet. 5.表示事物属性的动词:read, write, dry, wear, wash, open, shut…主动表被动,一 般这类动词后有一个修饰词。 例 1: The coat dries easily.
The book sells well. 例 2:The pen writes well. (write)
The book was written by Shakespeare. (write) 6.sth need/want/require(需要) doing ,主动表被动。
to be done 例:This shirt needs washing/to be washed. (wash) 7.在主动语态中,make, let, hear, see, watch, observe, notice 其后跟省略 to 的动词 不定式(即动词原形),在变被动语态时,必须还原动词不定式的 to. 例: We heard him sing this song in that room.
→He was heard to sing this song in that room.
The boss made him work 14 hours a day. →He was made to work 14 hours a day. 8.带双宾语的动词 give, send, teach, lend, show, pass, tell 等,在变被动语态时,可 以有两种情况:直宾变成主语,间宾前加 to;间宾变主语,不加 to. 例:My friend gave me a pen yesterday. →A pen was given to me (by my friend) yesterday. →I was given a pen (by my friend) yesterday.
非谓语动词

非谓语动词:不能作谓语的动词形式,可以作除谓语动词外的任何成分,即主谓 宾表定状补。
三种基本形式:doing, done, to do

Doing:

一、作主语

1.doing 作主语,位于句首,谓语动词用单数形式。doing 表示经常性、*惯性的动

作。

Climbing mountains is a good way to keep fit.(保持健康)





Walking dog is his hobby. 主系
2.当 doing 作主语太长时,用 it 作形式主语代替 doing 放在句首,doing 放在句尾。 (避免头重脚轻)

Crying over the spilt milk is no use.



→ It is no use crying over the spilt milk.

形式主语

真正主语

固定句型:

1. It is no use / no good / useless / senseless doing…

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2. It is worth doing sth…

3. It is a waste of time doing…

4. It is fun / enjoyable / pleasant /a good pleasure doing… 例:It’s no use _____ with him since he has made up his mind. (2010)

A. to argue B. arguing C. to be argued D. argued 二、作宾语
1.动词 + doing consider(考虑), suggest(建议), look forward to(盼), excuse(原谅), admit(承认), delay/put off(推迟),得,fancy(想象), avoid(避免), miss(错过), keep(继续), practice(练), deny(否认), finish(完成),就, enjoy/appreciate(欣赏), forbid(禁止), imagine(想象),才, risk(冒险), stand(忍受), mind(介意), allow/permit(准), escape(逃亡). 固定搭配:

1. advise / forbid / allow, permit + doing sth

建议 禁止 两允许

sb to do sth

2. need/want/require + doing

需要

to be done

例:⑴He enjoys _____ pop music while I prefer classical music. (2010)

A. to listen to B. to listen C. listening D. listening to ⑵The garden requires_____ . (2009)

A. watering B. being watered C. to water D. having watered ⑶I appreciate____ to your birthday party. (2003)

A. to be invited B. to have invited C. having invited D. being invited ⑷I don’t mind____ out for a walk in such a bad weather. (2006)

A. go B. to go C. going D. gone ⑸I don’t mind ____ in the office.

A. to smoke B. smoked C. his smoking D. smokes

注:1.doing 的被动形式:being done (第 3 题只有被动的含义)

2.doing 的复合结构:

在 doing 前面加 形容词性物主代词: his smoking

名词所有格:

Tom’s smoking

代词的宾格形式(口语):him smoking

(doing 动作的发出者)

如果 his smoking 与 him smoking 同时出现,选择更加正式的 his smoking.

3.doing 的否定形式:紧挨着 doing 前加 not : not doing

例 1:I’m sorry for not being there.

例 2:⑴No one can avoid____ by advertisements. (2008)

A. influenced B. influencing C. to influence D. being influenced ⑵What is the reason for ____ on time? (2012)

A. not your coming B. you not come

C. your not coming D. you not to come

2.作介词宾语(所有的介词后跟动词的-ing 形式)

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介词:at, for, against, on, by, to, (in)…

⑴to 为介词的短语:(~ to doing)

be/get used to = be accustomed to *惯于

get down to 开始做…

pay attention to 关注

contribute to 有助于

devote oneself to 投身于

be addicted to 沉溺于

look forward to 盼望

object to 反对

stick to 坚持

lead to 导致

the key to …的关键

confess to 坦白

☆prefer 的用法:

prefer + doing (长期的动作)

to do (一次性的动作)

prefer to do A rather than do B = prefer doing A to doing B 宁愿做 A 而不愿做 B

例:I prefer walking______. (2007)

A. to drive B. to driving C. than drive D. than driving ⑵省略介词 in 的短语:
sb spend 时间 (in) doing sth 花(时间)做… sb be busy (in) doing sth 忙于 sb have trouble/difficulty/a problem/a hard time (in) doing sth 做…有困难 There is no point (in) doing… 做…是没有用的。 sb lose no time (in) doing sth 不失时机做… succeed in doing 成功做…(in 不可省略) 例:⑴As a lawyer he spent a lot of time_____ investigations. (2006)

A. conducted B. to conduct C. conduct D. conducting ⑵There is no____ arguing about it, just do as you are told. (2005)

A. reason B. way C. point 3.既跟 doing 又跟 to do 的词: ⑴用法相同: start/begin doing

D. meaning

⑵用法不同:

to do

a. love/like/hate + doing (长期的动作)

to do (一次性的动作)

b. forget doing 忘记已经做过某事(失忆)

to do 忘记去做某事(健忘)

remember doing 记得曾经做过某事

to do 记住要做某事

regret doing 后悔做过某事

to do 遗憾要去做某事

c.

stop doing 停止正在做的事

to do 停下来做另一件事

go on doing 继续做同一件事

to do 接着做另一件事

d.

try doing 尝试着做某事

to do 努力做某事

mean doing 意味着做某事

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to do 打算做某事 can’t help doing 情不自禁做某事
(to) do 不能帮助做某事 e. feel like doing 想做某事
would like to do 想做某事

三、作表语 doing 作表语,对主语进行解释说明或表示主语的特征。 例:My aunt’s job is laying eggs. (主语等于表语) The music sounds exciting. (doing 表主语的特征,译为“令人…的”)

四、作定语

1.doing 作定语,放在名词前,表示该名词的用途,或 doing 的动作由该名词发出。 dining room (餐厅) reading room (阅览室) walking stick (手杖) boiling water (正沸腾的水) sleeping baby (正在睡觉的婴儿) developing
country (发展中国家) 2.doing 作定语,放在名词前,表示该名词的一种客观状态,译为:“令人…的”

exciting, boring, tiring, puzzling, confusing, moving…

例: an exciting voice 一个令人兴奋的声音

a puzzling expression 一个令人困惑的表情 囧

a moving movie

一部令人感动的电影

doing 作表语→ The movie is moving.

3.doing 短语作定语,放在名词后,表示该名词与 doing 构成主动进行的关系。

⑴The girl is my ex.



The girl wears a pink hat. ↗ The girl wearing a pink hat is my ex.

⑵They live in a mansion.(豪宅) ↘

The mansion faces north.

↗ They live in a mansion facing north.

⑶The man is Baldhead Strong. ↘

The man is being beaten.

↗ The man being beaten is Baldhead Strong.

注:being done 作定语时:表示“正在被…”

五、作状语 1.doing 作状语,句子中有“,”表示主句主语与非谓语动词构成主动进行的关系。 考题形式:⑴ 非 ⅹⅹ,SVO.
SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. 主语 S 与非谓 doing 构成主动进行的关系。 S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO. ⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓 doing 构成主动进行的关系。 注:形式⑵又被称为独立主格结构。 例 1:Weather permitting(允许), we will visit you tomorrow. 例 2:⑴_____ in Beijing, he was met by his good friend.
A. He arrived B. Arriving C. Being arrived D. Arrived ⑵He lived in Beijing, ____ as a writer.
A. worked B. being worked C. working D. work ⑶My uncle, ____ in Beijing, is a doctor.

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A. he lives B. living C. being lived D. lived ⑷The day ____ hot, we decided to go swimming. A. was B. being C. been D. be 2.doing 与 having done 的区别: 两者都表示主动,但是 having done 强调非谓语动作明显先于主句谓语动词动作 发生。 例:⑴____dinner, he went to the restroom. A. Had B. Having C. Having had D. To have ⑵____his father, the baby began to cry at once(马上). A. Seen B. Seeing C. Having seen D. Saw ⑶____several times, the dog died at last. A. Deserting B. To desert C. Having deserted D. Having been deserted 注:doing 的被动形式为 being done, 作状语时表示:“正在被…” doing 的完成形式:having done(主动) doing 的被动完成形式:having been done
六、作补足语(见非谓语总结)

Done:过去分词(done 不作主语,宾语)
一、作表语 done 作表语,主语通常是人,done 表达一种主观感受,译为:“感到…的”, 此时 done 相当于 adj. excited, bored, tired, confused, annoyed…
例:The movie is boring, so I feel bored. (bore) I am tired of the tiring work. (tire)

二、作定语

1.单个过去分词作定语时,位于名词前,表示已经完成的动作或状态。

boiled water 开好的水

fallen leaves 已经落下的叶子

boiling water 正沸腾的水

falling leaves 正在落下的叶子

developed country 发达国家 developing country 发展中国家 2.done 的短语作定语时,位于名词后,表示该名词与非谓语动词之间构成被动完 成的关系。

考题形式:名词 非 ⅹⅹVO. 或 SVO 非 ⅹⅹ.

例 1:I have a radio made in China.

例 2:⑴The first textbook____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out

in the 16th century.

(2013)

A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written ⑵I’ve never seen the young man____ next to the director. (2006)

A. sits B. sat C. sitting D. to sit

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⑶David sent his girlfriend a ring____ by his grandmother for all her life.

A. have kept B. kept C. has kept D. has been kept

(2013)

三、作状语

1.done 作状语,句子中有“,”表示主句主语与非谓语动词构成被动完成的关系。 考题形式:⑴ 非 ⅹⅹ,SVO.
SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. 主语 S 与非谓 doing 构成被动完成的关系。 S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO. ⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓 doing 构成被动完成的关系。 例:⑴_____ the park, we found it beautiful.

A. See B. Seeing C. Seen D. Saw ⑵The teacher came into the lab, ____ by some students.

A. following B. followed C. follow D. having followed ⑶The park, ____ from the building, is very beautiful.

A. See B. Seeing C. Seen D. Saw ⑷With the hard work ____, he went to bed.

A. finishing B. having finished C. finished D. finishes 2.done 与 having been done 的区别:
两者都表示被动,但是 having been done 强调非谓语动作明显先于主句谓语动 词动作发生。

例:⑴A new technique____ , the output as a whole increased by 20 percent. (2012)

A. working out

B. having worked out

C. to have been worked out D. having been worked out ⑵All the officials____ , the meeting was declared(宣布) open.

A. arrived B. arriving C. being arrived D. having arrived ⑶____ many times, he still repeated the same mistake.

A. Told B. Being told C. Having been told D. Having told ☆一个知识点:

compare A with B 变被动→ A is compared with B 所以 A 与 compare 为被动关系。

Compared with B, A… 同理的还有:Covered with B, A… 四、作补足语(见非谓语的总结)

To do: 不定式
一、作主语 1. to do 作主语,位于句首,谓语动词用单数,表示一次性具体的动作。 例: To finish so much work in a short time is impossible. 2.当 to do 作主语太长时,用 it 作形式主语代替 to do 放句首,真正的主语 to do 放句尾。(避免头重脚轻) 例: It is impossible to finish so much work in a short time. [固定句型]
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1. It takes sb + 时间 + to do sth. “花费某人多长时间做某事” 例:It took him ten years to learn English. 2. It is + adj. + for sb to do sth. “对于某人来说,做…是…的” 此类 adj.有:important, possible, difficult(hard), necessary, interesting, easy… 其中 adj.是形容 to do sth.的。 例:It is easy for me to learn English. 3. It is + adj. + of sb to do sth. “某人做某事是…的” 此类 adj.有:wise, polite, kind, clever, honest… 其中 adj.是形容 sb 的。 例:It is wise of him to leave that company,
It is very kind of you to teach me how to play Plants VS Zombies.

二、作宾语

1.动词 + to do

decide/determine(决心), learn(学会), want(想), expect/hope/wish(希望),

refuse(拒绝), manage(设法), demand(要), pretend(假装),

promise(答应), offer(提供), choose(选), plan(计划),

agree(同意), ask/beg(请求), help(帮一帮).

注:help (to) do

wish to do

hope to do

help sb (to) do wish sb to do hope sb to do (ⅹ)

例:⑴My little son would like____ to his grandma today.

A. to take B. taking C. to be taken D. taken ⑵I couldn’t understand why he pretended_____ in the garden. (2006)

A. not to see me B. not see me C. to see me not D. to see not me ⑶When his mother came into the room, the boy pretended____ books.

A. to read B. reading C. being read D. to be reading 注:⑴ to do 的否定形式:not to do
⑵to do 的进行式:to be doing,表示谓语动作发生时,不定式的动作正在进行。 2. it 作形式宾语,把真正的宾语 to do 放在句尾。
(在英语中,有且只有 it 可以充当形式宾语/形式主语) 结构:主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补
主 + 谓 + it + 宾补 + to do 例: I consider to obey the laws important.

I consider it important to obey the laws. 注:此类常见的动词有:believe, consider, find, regard… 3.作介词宾语 “do 巴 do”原则 当介词 but, except, besides 前有实义动词 do(译为“做”),后无 to;前无 do, 后 有 to. 以 but 为例: 有 do + but do
无 do + but to do 例:⑴The departure time of the plane has been postponed, so we have nothing to do

now but_____ .

(2006)

A. wait

B. to be waiting C. to wait D. waiting

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⑵That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but ____ the police. (2010)

A. called in B. calling in C. call in D. to call in

4.固定句型:

⑴had better (not) do sth. 最好(不)干…

⑵Why not + do(动原)

为什么不…?

⑶sb happen to do

某人碰巧…

⑷would rather (not) do 宁愿做…

⑸would rather do A than do B = would do A rather than do B

⑹*行结构 rather than : to do rather than (to) do

例:I decided to write rather than make a phone call.

5. 疑问词 + to do 也可作宾语

疑问代词:what, which, whom

疑问副词:how, where, when, why

例:I don’t know what to do.

注:疑问代词中 to do 的 do 为 vt./vi. + 介词

疑问副词中 to do 的 do 为 vi.

例:I don’t know whom ____ .

A. work B. to work C. working D. to work with

I don’t know what to do.

what 与 to do 为动宾关系,即:to do what

I don’t know whom to work with. whom 与 to work with 为动宾关系,即:to work

三、作表语

with whom

to do 作表语,表示一次性具体的动作。 doing 作表语,表示经常性抽象的动作。 His job is to paint the walls. 他这次的工作是刷这些墙。 His job is painting walls. 他*时的工作是刷墙。

四、作定语

1.to do 与 to do 前所修饰的名词构成动宾关系。 例:⑴I have a lot of work to do.
a lot of work 与 to do 为动宾关系,即:to do a lot of work ⑵The Browns have a house to live in. a house 与 to live in 为动宾关系,即:to live in a house ⑶She has a sister to look after. a sister 与 to look after 为动宾关系,即:to look after a sister ⑷There is something to pay attention to. something 与 to pay attention to 为动宾关系,即:to pay attention to something 2. to do 表将来,与所修饰名词构成将来被动的关系。形式为:to be done 例:⑴The meeting ____ tomorrow is very important.

A. to hold B. held C. holding D. to be held ⑵If the building project____ by the end of this month is delayed, the

construction company will be fined.

(2007)

A. being completed B. is completed C. to be completed D. completed 3. 由 the first/second…the last, the best, the only, the next 修饰的名词,后跟不定式

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作定语。 例:He was the first one to come and the last one to leave.
He is the best man to do the job.

五、作状语

1.to do 不定式作状语,有将来意味,表目的或结果。 例:⑴____ a seat, he got up early.

A. Grabbing B. To grab C. To be grabbed D. Having grabbed ⑵____ her noodles, I made full preparations.

A. Cooking B. To cook C. Cooked D. Having cooked ⑶He hurried to the hospital, only _____ his father had just died. (2010)

A. to tell B. to be told C. telling 注:only to do 表示出乎意料的结果。
类似的有:only to find/notice

D. told

only to be told/informed 2.固定搭配
⑴主 + 谓 + too + adj./adv.(原形) + to do… “太…而不能…” 例:I’m too tired to stay up longer. ⑵主 + 谓 + adj./adv.(原级) + enough to do “足够…可以…” 例 1:He is old enough to go to school. 例 2:He is _____ join the army. (2010)

A. too young to B. enough young to C. very young to D. young enough to ⑶in order to do = so as to do
(句中,句首) (句中) 例:Bob took down my telephone number in order not to forget it.

六、作补足语(见非谓语的总结)

非谓语的总结

一、作主语(done 不作主语)

能作主语的非谓语有三种: To do,

Doing,

Being done

表一次性的动作 表经常性的动作 只表示被动

且主等于表

例 1:Being caught in a heavy traffic is a bad thing. 例 2:_____to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. (2013)

A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed

It 作形式主语的变形及其固定句型

二、作宾语(done 不作宾语) 1. doing 的讨论:
⑴哪些词后面加 doing?(固搭、his smoking 的复合结构) ⑵哪些介词短语后加 doing?(即 doing 作介词宾语的情况)

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讨论 to 和 in 的短语 2.to do 的讨论:
⑴哪些词后面加 to do? ⑵it 作形式宾语 ⑶作介词宾语:do 巴 do 原则(固搭、疑问词+to do) 3.既跟 doing 又跟 to do 词的讨论: ⑴用法相同:start/begin ⑵用法不同:a. b. c. d. e. 五种情况
三、作表语 1. doing 即:V-ing 译为“令人…的”,主语一般是物。
done 即:V-ed 译为“感到…的”,主语一般是人。 2. doing : 表示经常性抽象的动作。His job is painting walls.
done : 表示一次性具体的动作。His job is to paint the walls.

四、作定语

定语以 adj.为标志,所以分两种情况。

1.doing 和 done 为单词时,形式为:doing+名词

表用途或动作由 doing 发出

to do 动宾关系, to be done, the first…

2. doing, done 和 to do 为短语时:

doing (主动进行)

being done (正在被…)

done (被动完成)

to be done (将来被动)

考题形式为:名词 非 ⅹⅹVO. 或 SVO 非 ⅹⅹ.

讨论主被动和时间

例:The concert B now is wonderful.

D yesterday was wonderful.

C tomorrow will be wonderful.

A. holding B. being held C. to be held D. held

done+名词
完成的动作

五、作状语
1.讨论 doing 与 done doing (主动进行) done (被动完成)
考题形式:(有“,”出现) ⑴ 非 ⅹⅹ,SVO. SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO.

having done (主动,该动作明显先于谓语动词) having been done (被动,该动作明显先于谓语动词)
主语 S 与非谓 doing 的主被动关系 或 doing 与谓语动词的动作先后

⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓 doing 的主被动关系。 2.讨论 to do
⑴to do 不定式作状语,有将来意味,表目的或结果。 ⑵only to find/notice

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only to be told/informed

固搭:too…to… enough to do 3.补:插入语作状语

in order to do = so as to do

Generally speaking (一般来说), Frankly speaking = To be frank (坦白地说), To be honest = To tell (you) the truth (说实话), Believe it or not (信不信由你), Judging from/by (根据…来判断), Given… (考虑到,鉴于), Provided (that)… = Providing (that)… (如果,假如) Compared to/with… (与…相比) 4.补:There be 句型的非谓语形式为 There being 例:⑴There____ nothing to do, we are going to watch a movie.

A. is B. being C. been D. to be ⑵_____ nothing to talk about, he said good-bye and went out of the room.

A. There was B. There being C. Being D. There been 六、作补足语

(2005)

1.作主语补足语

主动:to do 主动将来

sb/sth be said / reported / believed / known / considered

to have done 已发生

被动:to be done 被动将来

be have been done 已

发生的被动

此相当于:It is said / reported / believed / known / considered that + 句子(主语从句)

例:⑴He is said____ two trips to China in the last two years. (2002)

A. to be making B. to make C. to have made D. to have been making ⑵Many of his novels are reported_____ into several foreign languages last year.

(2006)

A. to be translated

B. to translate

C. being translated

D. to have been translated

2.作宾语补足语

⑴感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, hear 的宾补:

以 see 为例: doing sth 看见…正在做…

see + 宾语 + do sth 看见…做了…(动作的全过程) done 看见…被做

注:see + 宾语 + do 结构为主动,变被动时,要将 do 变为 to do: 例: We heard him sing this song in that room.

→He was heard to sing this song in that room. ⑵使役动词 make, let, have, get
make + 宾 + do 让…做 done 让…被做
let + 宾 + do 让…做

be done 让…被做 have + 宾 + do 让…做

done 让…被做 doing 让…一直做

get + 宾 + to do 让…做

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done 让…被做 doing 让…开始做 注:find + 宾 + doing 发现…正在做
done 发现…被 keep + 宾 + doing 让…一直做
done 让…被 leave + 宾 + to do 留下…去做
doing 留下…一直做 catch sb doing sth 撞见某人正在做某事 例:⑴His English was so poor that he found it difficult to make himself_____. (2006)

A. understood B. understand C. be understood D. to understand ⑵Are you going downtown this afternoon? I am going to have these letters____.

A. mailed B. mail C. to mail D. mailing

(2009)

⑶When the little girl awoke, she found herself _____ by a group of soldiers.

(2010)

A. surround B. be surrounded C. being surrounded D. being surrounding ⑷I had a lot of trouble_____ the car_____ this morning. (2002)

A. to get, started B. to get, starting C. getting, started D. getting, starting 固定句型:

⑴主 + find + n. + adj. + to do → 为 vt. / vi. + 介词

I find English hard to learn. ⑵主 + be + adj. + to do

English is easy to learn. 例:They found the lecture hard_____ . (2009)

A. to understand B. to be understood C. being understood D. understood

定语从句

定语的位置:1.形容词作定语前置:形容词+名词

2.短语或句子作定语后置:名词+短语/句子(定语从句)

She is the girl.



The girl lives next door. ╱ She is the girl living next door.

who lives next door. 关系词

一、定义:在英语句子中,用于限定名词或代词的句子,叫做定语从句。

二、构成: 先行词+关系词+定语从句(一般情况下,三者紧挨着,顺序不可变) 例:She is the girl who lives next door. 先行词 关系词 定语从句

注:1.被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。 2.关系词指代先行词,两者为同一事物。

三、关系词 主
关系代词:指人 who/that 指物 which/that

宾 whom/that which /that

定语 whose whose

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关系副词:作状语,先行词为 时间 when 地点 where 原因 why(reason)
☆注:关系词的选择 当从句缺少成分(主、宾、表)时,用关系代词。 当从句不缺少成分时,用关系副词。
判断缺不缺成分以“五大基本句型”为标准。 例:⑴Is this the factory B he worked last year?
⑵I like the place C E I visited three years ago. ⑶He is the star D E we love. A. when B. where C. which D. whom E. that
四、如何找定语从句: 从____后开始找,如果有一个谓语动词,____后都是从句。 如果有两个谓语动词,____与第二个谓语动词之间的为从句。
例:⑴The girl B E my father is talking to is my girl friend. ⑵The work A E has just been finished is very important. ⑶I’ll never forget the day C we first met each other. A E we spent together. A. which B. whom C. when D. who E. that F. where
注:若____前有名词,通常考定语从句。
五、whose 的使用:1.从句不缺成分 2.先行词与从句主语构成从属关系 3.从句的主语前没有 the
例:⑴Do you know Peter C father happens to be working in your company? ⑵This is the scientist C achievements(成就) are well known. A. who B. whom C. whose D. of whom ⑶This is the house, D the window was broken last night. A. which B. whose C. that D. of which
注:whose + n. = of which/whom + the + n. = the + n. + of which/whom 例:This is the house, the window of which was broken last night.
This is the house whose window was broken last night.
六、关系代词 which 与 that 的使用: a.只用 that 不用 which 的情况: 1.当先行词是 something, everything, anything, nothing, some, all, a little, little, a
few, few 等不定代词或被这些词修饰时,用 that,不用 which. 2.当先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词或有 the only, the very(正好,正是), the last,
just 修饰时,用 that,不用 which. 3.当先行词既有人又有物时,用 that, 不用 which. 4.当主句主语是 Who 或 Which 的疑问句时,用 that, 不用 which. 5.在 There be 句型中,关系词作主语时,用 that, 不用 which. 例: ⑴Do you have anything that you want to say.
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⑵This is the best movie that I’ve ever seen. ⑶Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ⑷Who is the boy that won the gold medal(金牌)? ⑸There is a seat in the corner that is still available(可用的). b.只用 which 不用 that 的情况: 1.当先行词本身为 that 时,用 which, 不用 that. 例: What’s that which flashed(闪光) in the sky just now? 2.当关系词前有介词时,用 which, 不用 that 例:This is a house in which Lu Xun once lived. 注:此时,介词+关系代词 相当于 关系副词,且介词要与先行词或从句动词构 成搭配。

如上句:This is a house where Lu Xun once lived. 例:⑴This is the factory _____ he worked last year.

A. which B. in that C. in which D. of which ⑵John is the boy ____ he talked yesterday.

A. whom B. with whom C. of which D. of who 3.在非限制性定语从句中,用 which, 不用 that 定语从句的分类:

限制性定语从句:This is the book that/which I want to read. 非限制性定语从句:This is New York, which I have visited for several times. 注:1.限制性定语从句中无“,”且从句不可去掉,否则语义不完整。
非限制性定语从句中有“,”从句去掉,语义也完整,从句只起补充说明作

用。

2.在限制性定语从句中,当关系词作宾语时,可以省略。 例:This is the book (that/which) I want to read.
3.在非限定性定语从句中,只是不用 that,其他关系词可以用: 例 1:⑴The old woman, who lives on her own, has a cat for company.
⑵Lori is going to marry Mark, whom she does not love. 例 2:⑴She has fallen in love with Jack,_____ I find hard to imagine. (2009)

A. who B. that C. whom D. which ⑵Mr. Zhang, ____ came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of my father’s.

A. which B. that C. who D. whom

(2006)

七、当先行词为 the way(方式,方法)时,且当从句不缺成分时,

关系词有三种情况:that / in which / 不填

例 1:⑴The way that/in which/不填 he explained the sentence to us was simple.

⑵The way that/which he explained to us was simple.

例 2:I don’t like_____ you speak to her. (2013)

A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which

八、关系代词 as, which 的区别: 以下固定搭配用 as :
1. such…as… “像…一样的” the same…as… “和…一样的”
例:We have found such materials as are used in their factory.

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The result is not the same as they had expected.

注:the same…as… 和 the same…that…的区别:

例:This is the same pen as I lost. (指同一类型的笔,但不是同一支)

This is the same pen that I lost. (指同一支笔)

2.在非限定性定语从句中,as 和 which 都可以代表前面一整句话的内容。

as 引导的从句可位于主句前,主句中,主句后。但 which 引导的从句只能位于

主句后。

此外,as 用于以下固定搭配:

as we know(正如我们所知)

as is often the case(像通常那样)

as has been said before(如上所述)

as is reported(正如报道的那样)

as is well known(众所周知)

as was expected(正如预料的那样)

as is known to everybody(众所周知)

例:⑴As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health.

⑵Smoking, as we know, is harmful to one’s health.

⑶Smoking is harmful to one’s health, as we know.

⑷She married him, which was natural.

九、其他要点(一)

1. one of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词复数

the only one of +复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词单数

例:He is one of the boys who are handsome.

(be)

先行词

He is the only one of the boys who is handsome. (be) 先行词
2.数词/代词 + of which/whom 表示先行词的数量。 此类词有:all, none, both, neither, either, some, most… 例:⑴She has ten friends, ____ is a girl.

A. none of which B. none of whom C. who D. some of whom ⑵I have two pens, ____ writes well.

A. none of them B. none of which C. neither of which D. either of them 十、其他要点(二)
非地点意义的词,表“抽象地点”,如 situation(局面), point(境界), case(事例), position(境地), stage(阶段), condition(条件), circumstance(境况)…意思是“到了 某种地步,在某种境况中”,关系词用 where. 例:They have reached the point ____ they have to say goodbye to each other.

A. that B. which C. where D. when

十一、其他要点(三)

插入语 I think, I believe, I guess, I suppose, I imagine, in my opinion 通常放在关 系词与从句谓语动词之间。做题时,不考虑插入语。

例:He made another wonderful discovery,_____ of great importance to science.

A. which I think is B. which I think it is

(2012)

C. which I think it D. I think is

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十二、其他要点(四) 在先行词和关系词之间插入较短的成分,如时间状语,地点状语等时,从句 叫做分割定语从句。对于这种题,找先行词是关键。
例:I was the only person in my office who was invited.

名 词 性 从 句(充当名词的句子)

一、定义:具有名词作用的句子,叫做名词性从句。

注:在名词性从句中,

若_____在句首,从_____开始往后找,第二个谓语动词之前为从句。

若_____在句中,从_____开始往后画,画完即为从句。

二、分类

1.主语从句:一个句子放在主语的位置。(句子作主语时,谓语动词用单数。)

The book ╲ What I am reading ╱ is interesting. 2.宾语从句:一个句子放在宾语的位置。 a.作动词的宾语:

I don’t understand her words.

The boy told me the reason.

b.作介词宾语:

what she said.

why she hurt me.

My teacher was satisfied with what I did. 注:介词后面不能跟 that 引导的宾语从句,除了以下固定搭配:
in that(在于), but that(除了), except that(除了) 例:We know nothing except that Joe is from America.

I could say nothing but that I was sorry. ☆区别:

He offered me what I wanted.

(名从)

He offered me the book that/which/不填 I wanted. (定从)

3.表语从句:一个句子放在表语的位置。

The reason is a matter of money.

that I don’t have enough money. 4.同位语从句 The news that they won the match is true. (同位语从句) The news that you told us yesterday is true. (定从) 注:The news = they won the match 两者为同一事物,叫同位语。 ☆区分:

若_____前无名词,且句中无“,”为名词性从句。

若_____前有名词,有可能为定从或同位语从句。

当为同位语从句时,从句一定不缺成分,且前面的名词通常为抽象名词:news,

fact, idea, thought, hope, order(命令), information, truth, belief, theory(理论),

evidence/proof(证据), promise(承诺), faith(信念), conclusion(结论).

例:The idea that we invited her yesterday is quite good. (同位语从句)

The idea that you gave me is quite good.

(定从)

The idea is that we should invite her. (表从)

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注:1.tell/offer/bring/give sb 宾从 sb sth 定从/同位语从句
2.固定句型:I don’t think/imagine/believe/suppose…否定形式在主句,否定的 焦点却在从句,译为“我认为…不…”

3.固定句型:The reason (why… ) is that… “理由是…” It/This/That is the reason why… “这就是的…原因” It/This/That is because… “这是因为…” It/This/That is why… “这就是…的原因”
例 1:The reason was that he was ill.

That was the reason why he fell ill.

That was because he fell ill.

That was why he fell ill. 例 2:⑴The reason is _____ he is unable to operate the machine. (2013)

A. because B. why C. that D. whether ⑵We must get there before 7 o’clock. That’s_____ we have to start so early.

A. the reason that B. the reason for why

(2012)

C. why that

D. why

考点一:引导词的选择

1. that 在从句中不作成分,只起连接作用,无词意。(在宾语从句中才能省略。) 2. whether/if 在从句中不作成分,但具有“是否”的含义。
区别:whether 能引导所有的名词性从句,而且能和 or not 连用。 If 只能引导宾语从句,而且不能和 or not 连用。
3. 特殊疑问词: 连接代词:what(物/主、宾) “…的事情/东西” who(人/主、表) whom(人/宾)“谁” which(物/主、宾、定语) “哪一个、哪一些” 连接副词:when“什么时候” where“哪里,…的地方” why“为什么” how“如何”
☆连接词的选择原则:

在名从中,若从句缺少成分,用连接代词,连接代词的选择看句意。

若从句不缺成分,用连接副词/whether/if/that,选择看句意。 (若句中没有疑问语气用 that) 例:⑴_____ you ought to do is to see a doctor. (2007)

A. How B. What C. Which D. That ⑵There can be no doubt_____ someone had visited the house before they

arrived.

(2007)

A. why B. whether C. how D. that ⑶He kept silent, so I couldn’t know_____ he agreed____ not. (2012)

A. if; or B. whether; or C. either; or D. neither; nor ⑷_____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. (2008)

A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 注:1.当表示强调时,用 who, whom, what, which, when, where, how + ever, 译为
“无论…”

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例:_____ has finished the work ahead of time will be rewarded though we don’t

know who it will be.

(2013)

A. Those who B. Anyone C. Whoever D. No matter who 2.which 必须译为“哪一个,哪一些”:作从句的主语/宾语
放在名词前作定语,译为“哪个…”

例:⑴He asked me which I liked best among all these toys. ⑵Do you know which country is the largest in the world? ⑶Have you decided ____ cell phone you should buy, SAMSUNG or NOKIA?

A. what B. which C. when D. that 3.名从中的插入语 例:I will make friends with ____ (I think) is honest.

A. that B. whom C. who D. why

考点二:所有英语从句的语序都用陈述语序。

顺序为:连接词 + 主语 + 谓语动词 + 其他 例 1:I don’t know what is his name. (ⅹ)
I don’t know what his name is. (√) 例 2:⑴I didn’t hear____ because there was too much noise where I was sitting.

A. what did he say B. what he said

(2012)

C. what was he saying D. what for him to say ⑵Do you know ____ with her?

A. what the matter is B. what is the matter

C. how the matter is

D. how is the matter

注:在宾从中,若从句为 what is the matter 或 what is wrong, 语序仍然为疑问语

序。

考点三:it 作形式主语/形式宾语

1. That light travels in straight lines is known to all. ↓主语换 it

It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.

形主

真主

2. I consider that you should improve your pronunciation(发音) necessary.

↓宾语换 it

宾补

I consider it necessary that you should improve your pronunciation.

形宾

真宾

注:形式宾语常见的情况:

1. It is said / reported / believed that + 句子 2. It is clear / obvious / apparent / evident that + 句子 “…是显而易见的” ☆注:宾语从句的时态一致性:

1.若主句为现在时,从句根据需要选择。 2.若主句为过去时,从句必须使用过去的某种时态。 例 1:I know what he does.

I know what he did.

I know what he will do.

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例 2:I knew that he was lying.
虚拟语气

一、在虚拟条件句中的运用

If I were a bird, I would fly in the sky. (虚拟,不能实现)

If it is fine next week, I’ll go traveling. (真实条件句,可能实现,使用主将从现)

从句

主句

对现在的虚拟: If + 主 + did/were 主 + would/should/could/might + do

(与现在事实相反)

对过去的虚拟: If + 主 + had done 主+would/should/could/might+ have done

(与过去事实相反)

对将来事实相反:If + 主 + did

主 + would/should/could/might + do

(与将来事实相反)

were to do

should do 例:⑴If I ____ you, I ____ the chance to go abroad.

A. were; would have seized B. were; would seize

C. had been; would seized D. had been; were to seize ⑵If he had been in better health, he_____ more books. (2007)

A. can write B. could have written C. could write D. have written ⑶If they ____ several children in the future, they ____ a happy family.

A. had; would have been B. had had; would have been

C. had; would be

D. have; would be

注:1.在虚拟条件句中可省略 if,把从句中的 were, should, had 提到句首,变为倒

装句式。

例:_____ tomorrow, he would be able to see the opening ceremony. (2010)

A. Would he come B. If he comes C. Was he coming D. Were he to come 但是,否定词 not 不可提前: Weren’t it for the expense, I would go abroad now. (ⅹ) Were it not for the expense, I would go abroad now. (√)

2. if = provided (that) = providing (that) = supposing (that) = suppose (that)

译为“假如”,用法与 if 相同。 3.错综虚拟条件句(从句和主句虚拟的时间不一致,此时需看从句或主句的

时间状语。)

例:⑴If you had just followed my advice, you would be better now. (be)

⑵If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now.

(study) 4.含蓄条件句 用以下词代替 if 引导的虚拟条件句: with, without, but for(没有), but that(要不是), or/otherwise(否则)

+ 主句 现,将:情 v. + do 过去: 情 v. + have done

例 1:⑴But for your help, I wouldn’t have passed the exam yesterday. (not pass) ⑵But that it rained yesterday, I would have finished the work. (finish)

例 2:⑴I passed the test. I _____ it without your help. (2010)

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A. would not pass B. wouldn’t have passed

C. didn’t pass

D. had not passed

二、在名词性从句中的运用

1.用在宾语从句中 ⑴wish 引导的宾语从句表示一种不可能实现的愿望。
主 + wish + (that) + 现在:did / were 过去:had done / could have done 将来:would / could / might do
例:⑴I wish that I were a millionaire. (be) ⑵I wish I had met/could have met the movie star yesterday. (meet) ⑶I wish that my son would become a person who has a strong sense of responsibility(责任) when he grows up. (become)
例:I wish you_____ here last night. All of us were waiting for your arrival. (2006)

A. came

B. had come

C. come

D. will come

注:if only(要是…就好了)的用法:

If only + 句子 = How I wish + (that) + 句子

例:If only I had seen the film! = How I wish I had seen the film!

⑵用于表示建议、愿望、命令等动词后加宾语从句,句中为(should) do.

此类动词有:一坚持:insist

二命令:order, command

四建议:advise, suggest, propose, recommend

五要求:require, request, demand, desire, ask

宾从的结构为:主 + v.(以上词) + that + 主 + (should) + do (主动)

be done (被动)

例:⑴He asked that he____ an opportunity to explain why he’s refused to go there.

A. is given B. must give C. should give D. be given ⑵Experiments____ that accurate measurements be made. (2003)

(2013)

A. show B. prove C. demand D. head 注:以上词的名词和形容词的形式后面的 that 从句中,谓语动词还是(should) do. 例:⑴My advice is that she _____to apologize to him. (2013)

A. go B. where C. which D. when ⑵One of the requirements for a fire is that the material_____ to its burning

temperature.

(2007)

A. is heated B. will be heated C. be heated D. would be heated ⑶We are all for your proposal that the discussion______ . (2005)

A. be put off B. was put off C. will be put off D. should put off ⑷It is requested that the rent for the house_____ in advance. (2002)

A. will have to be paid B. has to be paid

C. should have to be paid D. should be paid

⑶insist ①坚持要求(虚拟)

suggest ①建议(虚拟)

②坚持认为(不用虚拟)

②暗示(不用虚拟)

例 1:⑴He insisted that he was right about his decision. (be) ⑵He insisted that we (should) set off at once. (set off)

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⑶The teacher suggested that we (should) learn English well. (learn) ⑷The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. (be) 例 2:The teacher insisted that we____ our homework before 9:00 o’clock. (2010)

A. finished B. had finished C. finish D. was finishing ⑷would rather / would prefer / would sooner / would just as soon
+ (that) + 宾语从句 对现/将虚拟: did / were 对过去的虚拟: had done
例:⑴I would prefer that you did not mention my name. (not mention) ⑵I would rather you_____ to the party with her. (2006)

A. go B. went C. will go D. has gone ⑶Mr. Smith would just rather we____ now, but we must go to work. (2005)

A. not leave B. didn’t leave C. are not to leave D. won’t leave ⑷I’d just as soon_____ those important papers with you. (2002)

A. that you won’t take

B. your not taking

C. please don’t you take

D. you didn’t take

2.用在主语从句中 It is necessary / important / strange / natural / essential / vital / imperative(迫切的) / a pity + that 从句,句中为(should) do.
例:⑴It is necessary that he _____ the task by the end of next week. (2010)
A. fulfill B. will fulfill C. will have fulfilled D. fulfills ⑵It’s necessary that the problem_____ in some way or other. (2006)
A. is settled B. has been settled C. be settled D. was settled

3.用在定语从句中
It is (high) time + (that) + V-ed should do (should 不可省略)
译为“(现在)是时候该……” 例:⑴It’s high time_____ about the traffic problem. (2008)
A. something was done B. something is done C. anything will be done D. nothing to be done ⑵It’s time the dog_____ how to behave properly. (2002)
A. is learning B. learns C. learned D. to learn

4.在目的状语从句中 在 in case(以防), lest(以免), for fear that(以免)后的状从中,动词用(should) do. 例:The Simpsons got up early lest they (should) miss the train. (miss)

5.在原因状语从句中

sorry

现/将: should do

主 + be + surprised + that +

disappointed

过去: should have done

此句型用于表达失望、难过、惊奇等情感,句中的 should 译为“竟然,居然”

例:I am sorry that he_____ in such poor health. (2013)

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A. are B. shall be C. were D. should be

6.在方式状语从句中 现在:did / were
主句 + as if / as though + 从句 过去:had done 将来:would/could do
例:⑴He speaks English as if he were an American. (be) ⑵He talked about the girl as though he had met her before.

(meet)

情态动词 + have done 的用法:

1.must have done

“过去肯定做了”

can’t/couldn’t have done “过去不可能做了”

注:没有 mustn’t have done ;mustn’t do 表示“禁止”“决不能”

2. can/could have done 表推测,译为“过去可能做了”

could have done(不能用 can)表能力,译为“过去本能够做但没做”

3. may/might have done “过去或许已经做了”

may/might not have done“过去可能还没有做”

4. should/ought to have done “过去本应该做而实际上没做”

should not/ought not to have done“过去本不应该做但做了”

5. need have done “过去需要做某事可是没做”

needn’t have done“过去没有必要做某事可是做了”

例:⑴I’m not surprised you failed the exam. You _____ have worked harder.

A. should B. must C. would D. ought

(2008)

⑵I_____ a little earlier, but I met a friend of mine on the way. (2006)

A. should arrive B. would be arriving C. could have arrived D. arrived ⑶You_____ me because I didn’t say that. (2007)

A. must misunderstand

B. must be misunderstanding

C. must have misunderstood D. had to misunderstand ⑷You_____ not have seen her yesterday, for she was abroad. (2009)

A. must B. should C. could D. would ⑸You_____ her in her office last Friday, she’s been out of town for two weeks.

A. needn’t have seen B. must have seen

(2001)

C. mustn’t have seen D. can’t have seen

倒装句

①完全倒装:谓语部分完全放在主语之前。(谓语部分包括除主语外的所有部分)

②部分倒装:只把谓语的一部分(情 v./ 助 v. /be)放在主语之前。(即一般疑

问句的语序)

一、完全倒装

1.表示方位或时间的副词/介词短语位于句首,如:here, there, then, up, down, in,

且主语是名词时,使用完全倒装。

out…

例:⑴The children rushed out. →Out rushed the children.

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⑵The girl came in. →In came the girl. ⑶She came in. →In she came. 注:主语为代词时,不倒装。方位副词放句首 + 主 + 谓 v. 2. such 位于句首时 例:⑴Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century’s greatest scientist. ⑵Such are the facts; no one can deny them. 注:such 后的 be 动词应与后面的“真正主语”保持一致。

二、部分倒装(半倒装) 1. only + 副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。 例 1:Only in this way can we learn English well. 例 2:⑴Only after the war ____ the sad news.
A. learned he B. learns he C. did he learn D. does he learn ⑵Only when____ did we find out the truth.
A. did he return B. he returned C. does he return D. he returns ⑶Only ____ answer the question.
A. can he B. can him C. he can D. him can 注:⑴only + 状语从句(从句不倒装),后面的主句倒装。
⑵only 修饰主语时,句子不可倒装。

2.否定副词及表否定的介词短语位于句首时,采用半倒装。 常用的否定词及短语:never, nor, not, hardly = scarcely = rarely(几乎不,几乎没 有), seldom, little, in no case = by no means = on no condition = on no account(决不), at no time = under no circumstances(在任何时候都不) 例 1:I have never seen such a moving movie.
→Never have I seen such a moving movie. 例 2:Seldom_____ in such a rude way. (2007)

A. we have been treated B. have we been treated

C. we have treated

D. have we treated

注:No wonder / Little wonder(不足为奇), In no time = soon 放句首,后面不倒装。

3.句型 1:Neither / Nor / So + 情 v. / 助 v. / be + 主 译为“…也不这样”/“…

否定 否定 肯定

也是如此”

句型 2:So + 主 + 情 v. / 助 v. / be 译为“…确实如此”

例:⑴----I am scared(害怕的).

----So am I. (= Me, too.)

⑵----I am scared.

----So you are. (你确实如此。)

⑶----Lily can’t ride a bicycle.

----Neither/Nor can Lucy. (露西也不会。)

注:句型 1 可以改写成 “It is the same with…” 或 “So it is with…”

it 可指上文一句话。

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例:----I like football, but I don’t like volleyball. ----_____. A. So do I B. Neither do I C. So it is with me. D. So is it with me.

4. So + adj./adv. + 半倒装 + that + 句子(不倒装) Such + a/an + adj. + n. + 半倒装 + that + 句子(不倒装) 译为“如此…以至于…”

例 1:⑴He speaks English so clearly that he can always make himself understood. 倒→So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood. ⑵He has such an interesting book that we all want to read it. 倒→Such an interesting book does he have that we all want to read it.
例 2:So loudly____ that all the people in the room got a fright. (2012)

A. he shouted B. shouted he C. did he shout D. he did shout

5. Hardly / Scarcely / Rarely … (had done) when… (did)

No sooner…(had done) than… (did) 译为“刚…就…” 例 1:I had hardly got home when it began to rain. 倒→Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. 例 2:⑴_____sat down_____ the phone rang. (2010)

A. No sooner had he…than B. No sooner he had… than

C. No sooner had he… when D. No sooner he had… when ⑵Hardly had he entered the classroom_____ the bell rang. (2006)

A. than B. then

C. when D. so

⑶_____closed his eyes than the doorbell rang. (2001)

A. Hardly had he

B. Scarcely he had

C. No sooner had he D. As soon as he had 6. Neither… (半倒装) , nor… (半倒装)
Not only… (半倒装) , but also… (不倒装) 例:Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it.

Not only is he a scientist, but also he is a painter.

7. Not until + 时间/从句(不倒装)+ 主句(半倒装) 例 1:⑴Not until 4:00 in the morning did he fall asleep.
⑵Nor until he returned did we have supper. 例 2:Not until ten o’clock_____ it was too late to return. (2003)
A. they realized B. they did realize C. did they realized

D. realized they

三、形式倒装(只把强调内容提至句首,主谓并不倒装) 结构为:adj. / v. / adv. + as/though + 主 + 谓,SVO.
例:⑴Young _____ , he knows a lot.
A. though is he B. although he is C. though he is D. although is he ⑵Try _____ , he didn’t pass the exam.
A. as he B. as he might C. he as D. he as might ⑶_____ , he couldn’t earn enough to support his family. (2010)

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A. Hard as he worked B. As he worked hard C. As hard he worked D. Hard as did he work ⑷_____ , water resources have been severely wasted or polluted. (2009) A. They are scarce B. Scarce they are C. Scarce as they are D. As scarce they are ⑸Smart____ he is, he can’t find the answer to the question. (2004) A. like B. as C. that D. how

强调句
一、句型:It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 句子剩余部分 注:强调人时用 who/that,强调物时用 that. 例:⑴It was him that/who we met at the school gate. 被强调部分 ⑵It was in the park that Tom lost has watch. 被强调部分

二、强调句的 It 与形式主语 It 的区别: ☆判断标准:将 It is/was…that/who 去掉,如果剩下的可组成一个完整句子,就
是强调句,否则不是。

例 1:It is there that accidents often happen. (强调句) →Accidents often happen there.

It is clear that not all boys like football. →Clear not all boys like football. (ⅹ) 只去掉 it →That not all boys like football is clear. (主语从句) 例 2:⑴_____that the trade between the two countries reached its highest point.

A. During the 1960’s

B. It was in the 1960’s

(2010)

C. That it was in the 1960’s D. It was the 1960’s ⑵I made this myself but it was_____ who taught me. (2012)

A. he B. him C. himself D. by him ⑶It was in Johnson’s hotel _____the business meeting was held last year.

A. this B. that C. what D. which

(2013)

⑷It was in the factory_____ you worked five years ago____ you learned the

technique.

(2012)

A. that; where B. where; when C. where; where D. where; that 注:not…until… 句型的强调句
句式为:It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其他 例 1:he didn’t leave until I came back. 变强调句→It was not until I came back that he left. 变倒装句→Not until I came back did he leave. 例 2:It was not until she had arrived home _____ she remembered her

appointment with the doctor.

(2008)

A. when B. that C. and D. where 二、强调谓语动词 + 助动词 do, did 或 does, 译为“的确,一定…”

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例:⑴He wrote to you last week. →He did write to you last week. ⑵Come this evening. →Do come this evening.
状语从句

连词的位置:连词+句子,句子。 句子+连词+句子。

一、时间状语从句

1. when + 长动作/短动作 while + 长动作 as:表示两个动作的同时性,译为“随着…”“一边…一边…”
例:⑴When John arrived, I was cooking lunch. ⑵As time goes on, it’s getting warmer and warmer. ⑶When/While/As I was waiting at the bus stop, I came across her.
注:1.当从句用延续性动词,主句用短暂性动词时,when, while, as 可互换,都 译为“当…时候”。 2. while 作为并列连词时,译为“然而”,表对比。
例 1:He likes pop music, while I am fond of folk music. 例 2:The cost of living in Glasgow is among the lowest in Britain, ____ the

quality of it is probably one of the highest.

(2012)

A. since B. when C. as D. while

2. as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the minute, the instant, once…(可用主将从现)以及 hardly / scarcely / rarely… (had done) when… (did) no sooner…(had done) than…(did), 以上连词都译为“一…就…” 例 1:I’ll go with you as soon as I finish my work. (finish) 例 2:⑴I’d like to see him in my office_____ he arrives. (2012)

A. for the moment B. the moment C. in a moment D. at any moment ⑵He had no sooner finished his speech_____ he withdrew. (2004)

A. than B. that

C. when

D. an

3. 长动作 + until/till… “直到…”

短动作(与 not 连用)+ until/till… “直到…才…”

例:⑴You may stay here until/till the rain stops.

⑵He won’t go to bed until/till she returns.

⑶Until you told me I had no idea of it.

注:till 不可放句首,until 可以。

4. every time/each time(每次), next time(下次), the last time(上次)可引导时间状语

从句。

例:⑴Every time I was in trouble, he would come to help me out. ⑵The last time she saw James, he was lying in bed.
例:John puts up his hand_____ the teacher asks a question. (2006)

A. every time B. in time C. some time D. at times

二、地点状语从句 由 where / wherever 引导,从句可放在主句之前或之后。

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表抽象含义时,从句放在主句之前。

例 1:⑴We should go where the Party needs us most. ⑵Where there is a will, there is a way.
例 2:After the earthquake, a new school building was put_____ there had once been a

theatre.

(2013)

A. that B. where C. which D. when

三、原因状语从句

1. because

→ since/now that → as



for









⑴译为“因为”

⑴译为“既然” ⑴译为“由于” ⑴译为“因为”

⑵对方不知道的原因 ⑵双方都知道的原因 ⑵双方都知道的原因⑵表推测的原因

⑶可用于回答 why

⑶位于句首

⑶位于句首/句中 ⑶位于句中

⑷位于句中或单独存在

例:⑴I was absent from the meeting because I was ill. ⑵As it is raining, we shall not go to the park. ⑶Now that/Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. ⑷It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.
2.seeing that, considering that, given that 也可表原因,译为“考虑到,由于”

四、目的状语从句

1. in order that 与 so that 译为“以便…”“为了…” (句首,句中) (句中)
引导的从句用情态动词,如:can, could, may, might, will, would… 2. for fear that(担心…) 与 in case (that) (以防…)可引导目的状语从句。 例:⑴_____we might see the sunrise, we started for the peak(山顶) early.

A. So that B. In order that C. For D. To ⑵My parents always keep candles in the house_____ there is a power outage.

A. if B. unless C. in case D. so that ⑶He was asked to speak louder_____ all the students in the classroom could

hear him.

(2001)

A. as B. so as to 五、结果状语从句

C. so that

D. than

1. so… that…与 such… that… “如此…以至于…” So + adj./adv. + that 从句 So + adj. + a/an + 单数可数 n. + that 从句 Such + adj. + 复数可数 n./不可数 n. + that 从句 Such + a/an + adj. + 单数可数 n. + that 从句 例:Mike is such an honest person that we all believe in him.

=Mike is so honest a person that we all believe in him. 2. so that 也可引导结果状语从句,译为“结果…” 例:It was very cold, so that the river froze. (结果状语从句)
I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me. (目的状语从句)

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六、条件状语从句

连词:if, unless, as long as(只要), in case(万一), on condition that(条件是), suppose/supposing (that)(假如), provided that=providing that(如果) 例:⑴You can only fly to London this evening_____ you don’t mind changing planes

in Paris.

(2012)

A. except B. provided C. although D. where ⑵Some companies might not let you rent a car _____you have a credit card.

A. where B. since C. because D. unless ⑶----Our holiday cost a lot of money.

(2013)

----Did it? Well, that doesn’t matter_____ you enjoyed yourselves. (2012)

A. unless B. as far as C. as long as D. until

七、方式状语从句 连词:as(按照…), as if / as though(好像) 例:⑴When in Rome, do as the Romans do. (入乡随俗。)
⑵I love you as if you were my sister. (虚拟语气) ⑶It looks as if it’s going to rain. (可能是真的,不是虚拟语气)

八、让步状语从句

1. although / though (尽管,即使),可与 yet, still, nevertheless 连用,但不能与 but 连用。

例 1:Although/Though it was raining hard, yet they went on playing football. 例 2:⑴It was a nice meal, _____a little expensive.

A. though B. whether C. as D. since ⑵Tired _____ he was, he still went on with his work.

A. although B. though C. because D. so 注:as/though 引导让步状从时可倒装,although 不可以。 2. even though / even if (即使) 例:Even if I were busy, I would go. (虚拟语气)
Even if it is raining, we’ll go there. (不虚拟) 3. wh – ever = no matter wh- 译为“无论…”
whether…or… 译为“不管…还是…” 例 1:Whatever (=No matter what) I say, he won’t believe me. (让步状从)
He won’t believe whatever I say. (名从) 注:wh-ever 可引导让步状从或名从,而 no matter wh-只引导让步状从。 例 2:Whether you believe it or not, it is true. 4. However / No matter how + adj./adv. + 主 + 谓 Whatever / No matter what + n. + 主 + 谓 例 1:However hard he tried, she didn’t get the job.

Whatever problems she met, she never gave up. 例 2:⑴_____difficult the task may be, we will try our best to complete it in time.

A. No matter B. No wonder C. Though D. However

(2013)

⑵He’ll never succeed in passing the CET-6,_____ hard he tries. (2009)

A. however B. whatever C. despite D. though

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⑶We must begin testing this instrument, no matter_____ difficult it is. (2007) A. however B. how C. whatever D. what
反义疑问句
一、原则:前肯后否,前否后肯。 二、构成:陈述部分,情 v. / 助 v. / be + 主语人称代词 ? 三、考点 1. 当陈述部分有 seldom, hardly, scarcely, never, few, little, nothing, nobody 等否定
词时,疑问部分为肯定。 例:⑴You never told us his phone number, _____ ? (2008)
A. hadn’t you B. didn’t you C. had you D. did you ⑵It is unfair, _____? A. is it B. isn’t it C. is it not D. not is it 注:当陈述部分有“否定前缀”的词时,疑问部分用否定。常见的否定前缀有: dis-, un-, in-(变体为 im-, il-, ir-)
2.当陈述部分有宾语从句时,疑问部分和主句保持一致。 例:He said that he would come to my birthday party, didn’t he ? ☆当陈述部分主句主语为第一人称+ think, believe, suppose, guess, expect, imagine
时,疑问部分与从句保持一致。 例:I don’t think he will succeed, will he ?
3.当陈述部分含有 must 时: ⑴ must:“必须”,疑问部分用 needn’t
mustn’t:“禁止”,疑问部分用 must / may ⑵must 表推测时,译为“一定”,将句子改为 I am sure + that 从句,疑问部分与 从句保持一致。 例 1:You mustn’t smoke here, must/may you ? 例 2:⑴You must be hungry now, aren’t you ?
→I am sure that you are hungry now, aren’t you? ⑵You must have heard about it, haven’t you ? →I am sure that you have heard about it, haven’t you? ⑶You must have watched that football match last night, didn’t you ? →I am sure that you watched that football match last night, didn’t you?
4.祈使句的反义疑问句 结构:否定句,will you ?
肯定句,will you ? / won’t you? Let’s… , shall we ? Let us… , will you ? / won’t you? 例:⑴Open the door, will/won’t you ? ⑵Let’s go out for a walk, shall we ? ⑶Let us go home now, will/won’t you ?
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5.当陈述部分主语为 everything, anything, something, nothing 时,疑问部分用 it. 例:Nothing happened to him, did it ? 6.当陈述部分为 this, that 或 these, those 时,疑问部分用 it 或 they. 例:This isn’t a fast train, is it ? 7.当陈述部分为 There be 句型,疑问部分用 there. 例:There will be rain tomorrow, won’t there? 8.当陈述部分的谓语动词是 have to 时,疑问部分用助动词 do. 例:You have to study hard, don’t you ?
I don’t have to get up early, do I ? 9.当陈述部分的谓语动词是 had better 时,疑问部分用助动词 had. 例:We’d better call off our appointment, hadn’t we ? 10.当陈述部分的谓语动词是 would rather 时,疑问部分用情态动词 would. 例:You’d rather not do it, would you ? 11.当陈述部分的谓语动词是 used to 时,疑问部分用 usedn’t 或 didn’t. 例:⑴You used to sleep with the windows open, usedn’t/didn’t you ?
⑵He used to get up at six in the morning, _____? (2004) A. used he B. did he C. didn’t he D. should he 12.当陈述部分的谓语动词是 ought to 时,疑问部分用 oughtn’t 或 shouldn’t. 例:He ought to attend the lecture, oughtn’t/shouldn’t he ?
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人过四十,已然不惑。我们听过别人的歌,也唱过自己的曲,但谁也逃不过岁月的审视,逃不过现实的残酷。如若,把心中的杂念抛开,苟且的日子里,其实也能无比诗意。 借一些时光,寻一处宁静,听听花开,看看花落,翻一本爱读的书,悟一段哲人的赠言,原来,日升月落,一切还是那么美。 洗不净的浮沉,留给雨天;悟不透的凡事,交给时间。很多时候,人生的遗憾,不是因为没有实现,而是沉于悲伤,错过了打开心结的时机。 有人说工作忙、应酬多,哪有那么多的闲情逸致啊?记得鲁迅有句话:“时间就像海绵里的水,只要挤总是有的。” 不明花语,却逢花季。一路行走,在渐行渐远的时光中,命运会给你一次次洗牌,但玩牌的始终是你自己。 坦白的说,我们遇到困扰,经常会放大自己的苦,虐待自己,然后落个遍体鳞伤,可怜兮兮地向世界宣告:自己没救了!可是,那又怎样?因为,大多数人关心的都是自己。 一个人在成年后,最畅快的事,莫过于经过一番努力后,重新认识自己,改变自己。学会了独自、沉默,不轻易诉说。因为,更多的时候,诉说毫无意义。 伤心也好,开心也好,过去了,都是曾经。每个人都要追寻活下去的理由,心怀美好,期待美好,这个世界,就没有那么糟糕。 或许,你也会有这样的情节,两个人坐在一起,杂乱无章的聊天,突然你感到无聊,你渴望安静,你想一个人咀嚼内心的悲与喜。 透过窗格,发着呆,走着神,搜索不到要附和的词。那一刻,你明白了,这世间不缺一起品茗的人,缺的是一个与你同步的灵魂。 没有了期望的懂,还是把故事留给自己吧!每个人都是一座孤岛,颠沛流离,浪迹天涯。有时候,你以为找到了知己,其实,你们根本就是两个世界的人。 花,只有在凋零的时候,才懂得永恒就是在落红中重生;人,只有在落魄的时候,才明白力量就是在破土中崛起?. 因为防备,因为经历,我们学会了掩饰,掩饰自己内心的某些真实,也在真实中,扬起无懈可击的微笑,解决一个又一个的困扰。 人生最容易犯的一个错误,就是把逝去的当作最美的风景。所以,不要活在虚妄的世界,不要对曾经存在假设,不要指望别人太多。 有些情,只可随缘,不可勉强;有些人,只可浅交,不可入深;有些话,只可会意,不可说穿。 或许,有这么一段情,陪你度过漫长冰冷的寒冬;有那样一个人,给你抑郁的天空画上了温暖的春阳。 但时光,总会吹散很多往事,把过去一片片分割,移植到不同区域,并贴上标签,印着不同的定义,也定义着自己的人生态度。 正如庄子所说:“唯至人乃能游于世不避,顺人而不失己。”外在的世界,只是一个形式,而你内在的世界,才是真正的江山。
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